Tajikistan

The President of Tajikistan introduced his intention to establish a market for the switch of land-use certificates. In April 2009, he declared that the related ministries and departments ought to take the mandatory steps to draft laws to implement this aim and to advertise reform of the agricultural sector. The Land Code as amended in 2008 and the 2009 Law on Dekhan Farms state that shareholders have the right to convey their shares to others, but neither legislation supplies further particulars on transactions (GOT 2009b; GOT 2009a). Despite laws and laws offering for individual discretion in land use, the 2008 Law on Land Use Planning allows the state to intervene in cropping and production selections on cotton farms. The state sets district production quotas for cotton, and the khukumats enforce cotton sowing targets in their districts. There are reports that students are forced to work on annual cotton harvesting campaigns, although officials maintain that the scholars do so voluntarily.

For instance, it is potential for workers to belong to a collective dehkan without realizing that the farm is now not a collective or state farm. The dehkan certificates for land-use right is issued within the name of the dehkan head, versus the names of each member. Additionally, when collective or state farms are reworked into collective dehkan, managers usually continue to report back to the khukumat as a substitute of to dehkan members. Rights of perpetual use, limited use and lifelong inheritance use have to be recorded in a certificate, whereas leases should be registered within the Land Use Registry.

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Tajikistan additionally has nine reservoirs covering a total floor space of 664 square kilometers and holding 15.3 cubic kilometers. Several major rivers move through the country, including the Syr Darya and the Amu Darya with its tributaries the Vakhsh, the Pyandzh, and the Kafirigan. The country has potential groundwater reserves of 6.9 cubic kilometers per year, though precise exploitation is lower, reaching 2.5 cubic kilometers per yr (ADB 2007a; ICG 2002; Lerman and Sedlik 2008; OIC 2008; GOT 2010; Encyclopedia of Earth 2008). The World Bank is funding a five-year (2007–2011) US $sixteen.7 million Community Agriculture and Watershed Management Project in Tajikistan. The project is designed to construct the productive belongings of rural communities in chosen mountain watersheds, to increase sustainable productivity, and curtail the degradation of fragile lands and ecosystems. The international environmental goal is to protect vital mountain ecosystems by mainstreaming sustainable land-use and biodiversity conservation considerations inside agricultural and related rural funding choices. In addition, the land useful resource administration sub-element will foster sustainable uses of fragile lands and supply land-use certificates after three years of upkeep, subject to continued good land-use .

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Tajikistan has substantial freshwater resources, greater than another Central Asian country. The nation’s hydropower potential is enormous, the eighth-largest in the world with a technically feasible annual capacity to produce over 500 billion kilowatt hours. Precipitation, melting glaciers, and snowfields deposit 50.9 billion cubic meters of water in the country annually. There are 1300 pure lakes, overlaying a total space of 705 sq. kilometers and holding 46.3 cubic kilometers of water, of which 20 cubic kilometers are freshwater.

The Land Code, adopted in 1996 and as amended, provides a framework for present land-associated legislation in Tajikistan. The 1996 Land Code reaffirmed state ownership of land and makes provisions to secure the rational use and protection of land. Under the Land Code, pastureland is taken into account ―agricultural land and so is subject to the same legal guidelines as arable land. The 1999 Civil Code additionally governs certain issues associated to land (ARD 2003; GOT 2008; Duncan 2000; Robinson et al. 2009).

Many individuals select to complement their state-allocated family plot by leasing land. Foreign residents and legal individuals can be assigned land rights for up to 50 years (Lerman and Sedlik 2008; ARD 2003). Dehkan farms can be established upon application by people, families, or collectives.

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Morbidity because of unsafe drinking water contributes to the cycle of poverty in rural areas (World Bank 2008; ADB 2000; ADB 2007b). Tajikistan constructed an in depth system of irrigation and drainage facilities during the Fifties and Sixties. In 2009 the World Bank reported that nearly 70% of cropland was irrigated; the Government of Tajikistan estimates that 88% of arable land (815,000 hectares – a larger total space than cropland) is irrigated. However, a lot of the irrigation system is either completely derelict or in pressing need of repair. The total delivery efficiency of irrigation methods in Tajikistan is low, with losses from evaporation, seepage, general system deterioration, and unauthorized abstraction. As a outcome, solely an estimated 630,000 hectares are still even partially irrigated. Although Water Use Associations are being shaped, the centralized design and administration of the irrigation systems proceed to result in inefficient operation (ADB 2007a; ADB 2007b; World Bank 2005a; PA Consortium Group 2004; USAID 2004; IFPRI 2000; World Bank 2009a).

However, many Tajik households lack access to electrical energy in the winter months , when water used to generate hydroelectricity often freezes. During these months, rural households obtain at most 4 to 5 hours of electrical energy per day, and on some days receive none. This causes a dependence on wood fires and kerosene, which results in respiratory disease and environmental degradation.

The Tajik Aluminum plant, the largest in central Asia, alone consumes 40% of the nation’s electrical energy (FAO 1997; World Bank 2008; ADB 2008a; Asia Times Online 2010; GOT 2010). In 2005, 59% of the population had entry to an improved potable water supply, with a much higher percentage in urban areas than rural. In rural areas, many households depend on water from rivers, lakes, ponds, and is derived.

In the 2009 Law on Dekhan Farms, the state explicitly codified the right of dekhan farmers to choose their own crops, which represented a change from previous variations of the law (Lerman and Sedlik 2008; ILRF and TSIYC 2007; GOT 2009a). Under the Soviet system, women had high ranges of political representation and participation in the workforce. With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the following tajik girl civil war, women suffered from the deterioration of the state social safety internet and support they’d beforehand enjoyed . A lack of basic data regarding land-use rights is one other major barrier to tenure safety.

In 1995, the president issued two important decrees on land reform, to follow up on the earlier laws. Under Decree No. 342, fifty-thousand hectares of collective and state farm land were to be transferred to non-public household plots. This was adopted by Decree No. 621 which primarily reiterated the provisions of the 1992 Law on Land Reform .